Especially for SQL Server given you have little previous history answering for this RDBMS. Tips to Improve Query Performance in SQL Server . How to Delete using INNER JOIN with SQL Server? From my reading of the actual (not estimated) execution plan, the first bottleneck is a query that looks like this: See further down for the definitions of the tables & indexes involved. As a DBA, I design, install, maintain and upgrade all databases (production and non-production environments), I have practical knowledge of T-SQL performance, HW performance issues, SQL Server replication, clustering solutions, and database designs for different kinds of systems. Optimizer then selects the best The execution plan indicates that a value is just used so can be included. Just before we get started, I want to stress an important point: There are two distin… records to your database, you must Is there other way around to make it run faster? Thanks for contributing an answer to Stack Overflow! query is compiled. Database optimisation is not exactly my strong suit, as you have probably already guessed. This seems backwards to me, so I've tried to force a merge join to be used instead: The index in question (see below for full definition) covers columns fk (the join predicate), added (used in the where clause) & id (useless) in ascending order, and includes value. 1 Solution. Performance issues on an extremely large table A table in a database has a size of nearly 2 TB. Your ix_hugetable looks quite useless because: In addition: Only return absolutely only those rows needed to be JOINed, and no more. A join condition defines the way two tables are related in a query by: 1. Oftentimes, within stored procedures or other SQL scripts, temp tables must be created and loaded with data. The issue lies in random disk seeks due to the way your tables are clustered. Judging from the sp_spaceused output 'a couple of GB' might be quite an understatement - the MERGE join requires that you trawl through index which is going to be very I/O intensive. What is the right and effective way to tell a child not to vandalize things in public places? Might be of interest: ACC: How to Optimize Queries in Microsoft Access 2.0, Microsoft Access 95, and Microsoft Access 97. My concern is that neither the date range search nor the join predicate is guaranteed or even all that likely to drastically reduce the result set. I can't believe I didn't notice that, almost as much as I can't believe it was setup this way in the first place. Would there be any difference in terms of speed between the following two options? Where does the law of conservation of momentum apply? But there's more to it than this. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. MySQL optimization - year column grouping - using temporary table, filesort. I try not to use JOIN/INDEX hints personally because you remove options for the optimiser. Having reorganised the indexing on the table, I have made significant performance inroads, however I have hit a new obstacle when it comes to summarising the data in the huge table. Thus, you can write the following: declare @t as table (int value) Or does it have to be within the DHCP servers (or routers) defined subnet? Can an exiting US president curtail access to Air Force One from the new president? Join a single large fact table to one or more smaller dimensions using standard inner joins. Performance of very large sql server table with millions of rows:Performance of very large sql server table with millions of rows: So every single query will literally join to "BigTable"? This is surprisingly simple in concept, but seems to be incredibly difficult in practice. The answer is: It depends! First of all answer this question : Which method of T-SQL is better for performance LEFT JOIN or NOT IN when writing a query? Instead of updating the table in single shot, break it into groups as shown in the above example. The order in which the tables in your queries are joined can have a dramatic effect on how the query performs. I have altered the indexing and had a bash with FORCE ORDER in an attempt to reduce the number of seeks on the large table but to no avail. Why does the dpkg folder contain very old files from 2006? Experience tells me this is your problem. unique an index is. Can I assign any static IP address to a device on my network? with a particular query. Joins zeigen an, wie SQL ServerSQL Server Daten aus einer Tabelle zum Auswählen der Zeilen in einer anderen Tabelle verwenden soll.Joins indicate how SQL ServerSQL Servershould use data from one table to select the rows in another table. using a small set of sample data, you Performance Tuning SQL Server Joins One of the best ways to boost JOIN performance is to limit how many rows need to be JOINed. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and How do digital function generators generate precise frequencies? @Quick Joe Smith - did you try @Bohemian's suggestion? Rightly or wrongly, this is the outcome I'm trying to get. Is the bullet train in China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight? The initial article shows not only how to design queries with the performance in mind, but also shows how to find slow performance queries and how to fix the bottlenecks of those queries. performance is achieved when your When you do this, you want SELECT INTO. open and then save your queries to If your TVF returns only a few rows, it will be fine. If #smalltable had a large number of rows then a merge join might be appropriate. Why does my query end up with two seeks instead of one and how do I fix that? My understanding is that there is 3 types of join algorithms, and that the merge join has the best performance when both inputs are ordered by the join predicate. statistics. Mithilfe von Joins können Sie Daten aus zwei oder mehr Tabellen basierend auf logischen Beziehungen zwischen den Tabellen abrufen.By using joins, you can retrieve data from two or more tables based on logical relationships between the tables. The index is not appropriate. Book about an AI that traps people on a spaceship. They come in three varieties: Lazy Table Spool, Lazy Index Spool, and Lazy Row Count Spool. Compiling typically takes from one Why is the in "posthumous" pronounced as (/tʃ/), the INCLUDE makes no difference because a clustered index INCLUDEs all non-key columns (non-key values at lowest leaf = INCLUDEd = what a clustered index is). There's a caveat to "JOIN order does not matter". If your query happens to join all the large tables first and then joins to a smaller table later this can cause a lot of unnecessary processing by the SQL engine. Rebuilding indexes is better. The 4th column is not part of the non-clustered index so it uses the clustered index. Try adding a clustered index on hugetable(added, fk). How to label resources belonging to users in a two-sided marketplace? I know that SQL Server can implicitly convert from one to another. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. query. No indexing on fk at all = clustered index scan or key lookup to get the fk value for the JOIN. In order to get the fastest queries possible, our goal must be to make them do as little work as possible. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Because index rebuilding takes so long, I forgot about it and initially thought that I'd sped it up doing something entirely unrelated. Why continue counting/certifying electors after one candidate has secured a majority? See indexes dos and donts. In this article, Greg Larsen explains how this feature works and if it really does make a difference. Removing index on the column to be updated. See the T-SQL code example to update the statistics of a specific table: Let us consider the example of updating the statistics of the OrderLines table of the WideWorldImportersdatabase. Is the bullet train in China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight? As requested by Will A, the results of sp_spaceused: The id field is redundant, an artefact from a previous DBA who insisted that all tables everywhere should have a GUID, no exceptions. Even though the server is running with 8 CPUs, 80 GB RAM and very fast Flash disks, performance is bad. database. The query needs 3 columns: added, fk, value. Database Administrators Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for database professionals who wish to improve their database skills and learn from others in the community. Almost all RDBMS's (such MS Access, MySQL, SQL Server, ORACLE etc) use a cost based optimiser based upon column statistics. Additional information provided if required. Always use a WHERE clause to limit the data that is to be updated 2. Let's say I have a large table L and a small table S (100K rows vs. 100 rows). What does it mean when an aircraft is statically stable but dynamically unstable? If a query is To decide what query strategy to use, Joins indicate how SQL Server should use data from one table to select the rows in another table. underlying tables) and when the The execution plan shows that the index (ix_hugetable). What concerns me is the disparity between the estimated rows (12,958.4) and actual rows (74,668,468). If nothing else, you'll save a lot of disk space and index maintenance. Because there is no statistics available, SQL Server has to make some assumptions and in general provide low estimate. In most situations, the optimiser will choose a correct plan. Your query doesn't specify fk in the where clause of the first query, so it ignores the index. A typical join condition specifies a foreign key from one table and its associated key in the other table. How can I keep improving after my first 30km ride? Executing the update in smaller batches. and the updating of statistics occurs What is the point of reading classics over modern treatments? Showing that the language L={⟨M,w⟩ | M moves its head in every step while computing w} is decidable or undecidable. Use a dimensional modeling approach for your data as much as possible to allow you to structure your queries this way. 75GB of index and 18GB of data - is ix_hugetable not the only index on the table? : OPTION 1: OPTION 2: ----- ----- SELECT * SELECT * FROM L INNER JOIN S FROM S INNER JOIN L ON =; ON =; Notice that the only difference is the order in which the tables are joined. If you add a significant number of Microsoft SQL Server; 8 Comments. Fixing bad queries and resolving performance problems can involve hours (or days) of research and testing. What is the policy on publishing work in academia that may have already been done (but not published) in industry/military? Based on these statistics, the Performance spools are lazy spools added by the optimizer to reduce the estimated cost of the inner side of nested loops joins. Another option might be to try the FORCE ORDER hint with table order boh ways and no JOIN/INDEX hints. Performance is a big deal and this was the opening line in an article that was written on How to optimize SQL Server query performance. For large databases, do not use auto update statistics. The following script will do that. Pinal Dave is a SQL Server Performance Tuning Expert and an independent consultant. Without the 4th column above, the optimiser uses a nested loop join as before, using #smalltable as the outer input, and a non-clustered index seek as the inner loop (executing 480 times again). nested loop is being used on Let's say I have a large table L and a small table S (100K rows vs. 100 rows). I would have hoped that the hints would force a more efficient join that only does a single pass over each table, but clearly not. Many years ago I was told (seminar with a SQL Guru) that FORCE ORDER hint can help when you have huge table JOIN small table: YMMV 7 years later... Oh, and let us know where the DBA lives so we can arrange for some percussion adjustment. Developing pattern recognition for these easy-to-spot eyesores can allow us to immediately focus on what is most likely to the problem. I am trying to coax some more performance out of a query that is accessing a table with ~250-million records. Hah, I had it in my head that the clustered and non-clustered indexes had fk & added in different order. Speeding up inner joins between a large table and a small table, ACC: How to Optimize Queries in Microsoft Access 2.0, Microsoft Access 95, and Microsoft Access 97, Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things. the next time that the query is run. TLDR; If you have complex queries that receive a plan compilation timeout (not query execution timeout), then put your most restrictive joins first. database is compacted. There are different ways to improve query performance in SQL Server such as re-writing the SQL query, proper management of statistics, creation and use of indexes, etc. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. In that case just for fun guess one option LEFT JOIN or NOT IN. cannot specify how to optimize a : Notice that the only difference is the order in which the tables are joined. Dog likes walks, but is terrified of walk preparation. This is the order I'd expect the query optimizer to use, assuming that a loop join in the right choice. Optimising join on large table. This may be a silly question, but it may shed some light on how joins work internally. The relative cost of these seeks is 45%. how to fix a non-existent executable path causing "ubuntu internal error"? Running time is however under a minute. Why continue counting/certifying electors after one candidate has secured a majority? times (for each row in #smalltable). The execution plan indicates that a nested loop is being used on #smalltable, and that the index scan over hugetable is being executed 480 times (for each row in #smalltable). Can you add some references to the behaviour you have described too please? The index you're forcing to be used in the MERGE join is pretty much 250M rows * 'the size of each row' - not small, at least a couple of GB. Why is Clustered Index on Primary Key compulsory? Or does it have to be within the DHCP servers (or routers) defined subnet? #smalltable, and that the index scan over hugetable is being executed 480 If the table has too many indices, it is better to disable them during update and enable it again after update 3. I disagree: the ON clause is logically processed first and is effectively a WHERE in practice so OP has to try both columns first. Note: If value is not nullable then it is the same as COUNT(*) semantically. The date range in most cases will only trim maybe 10-15% of records, and the inner join on fk may filter out maybe 20-30%. Classic use of a covering index. If you want to update statistics using T-SQL or SQL Server management studio, you need ALTER databasepermission on the database. The statistics are updated whenever a In SQL Server 2019, Microsoft has improved how the optimizer works with table variables which can improve performance without making changes to your code. Imagine #smalltable had one or two rows, and matched vs. a handful of rows from the other table - it would be hard to justify a merge join here. How can a Z80 assembly program find out the address stored in the SP register? Whereas performance tuning can often be composed of hour… It only takes a minute to sign up. join (some large set of IDs, e.g 2000 values) a on t.RecordID = a.RecordID also try select (some large set of IDs, e.g 2000 values) into #a create unique clustered index ix on #a RecordID SELECT t.* FROM MyTable t join #a a on t.RecordID = a.RecordID ===== Cursors are useful if you don't know sql. If so, how would MySQL compare to Access? some of the factors that these SSIS can be used in a similar way. recompile the queries. Who knows how it is "using the index". Try changing the NC index to INCLUDE the value column so it doesn't have to access the value column for the clustered index. For example, if You've already tried (fk, added, id). Disabling Delete triggers. What is the difference between “INNER JOIN” and “OUTER JOIN”? I'm unsure as to my next course of action. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. DB's will use a multi-part (multi column) index only as far right of the column list as it has values counting from the left. If you want to update the statistics of a specific index, you can use the following script: In case you want to update t… Thanks for contributing an answer to Database Administrators Stack Exchange! Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. In addition to this, it might also cause blocking issues. 1. @Zaid: if the stats are up to date (and query is recompiled as noted above) then the order of the join won't matter; the optimizer will pick the right way. Yes, I tried that not long afterwards. What happens to a Chain lighting with invalid primary target and valid secondary targets? the Jet Engine optimizer uses @Quick Joe Smith - thanks for the sp_spaceused. I worked on all SQL Server versions (2008, 2008R2, 2012, 2014 and 2016). Define an index on hugetable on just the added column. - added or fk should be first It all depends on what kind of data is and what kind query it is etc. statistics are based on: Note: You cannot view Jet database engine optimization schemes, and you whether indexes are present and how The only reasonable plan is thus to seq scan the small table and to nest loop the mess with the huge one. New command only for math mode: problem with \S, Selecting ALL records when condition is met for ALL records only. Is it my fitness level or my single-speed bicycle? In SQL Server, we can create variables that will operate as complete tables. NEVER defrag SQL Server databases, tables or indexes. Why does the dpkg folder contain very old files from 2006? Would there be any difference in terms of speed between the following two options? Why do electrons jump back after absorbing energy and moving to a higher energy level? That causes the file sizes to grow much larger. to make sure that optimal query However, you can use the I love my job as the database … Do you think having no exit record from the UK on my passport will risk my visa application for re entering? It's running for a long time even if after I added indexes for the columns in the join in the same order. Your index is incorrect. Of course, if you are experiencing query plan compilation timeouts, you should probably simplify your query. A query is flagged In the example you gave, the order will not matter (provided statistics are up to date). If, as it's name suggests, it has a small number of rows then a loop join could be the right choice. Updating very large tables can be a time taking task and sometimes it might take hours to finish. Along with 17+ years of hands-on experience, he holds a Masters of Science degree and a number of database certifications. The problem with temporary tables is the amount of overhead that goes along with using them. To start things off, we'll look at how join elimination works when a foreign key is present: In this example, we are returning data only from Sales.InvoiceLines where a matching InvoiceID is found in Sales.Invoices. I realize performance may vary between different SQL languages. must re-compile the query after It sure is. If your RDBMS's cost based query optimiser times out creating the query plan then the join order COULD matter. This should make the planner seek out applicable rows from the huge table, and nest loop or merge join them with the small table. you design and then test a query by You can see in the following execution plan, that there is no difference between the two statements. Making copies of tables, deleting old one and renaming new one to old name can get rid of fragmenation and reduce size (getting rid of empty spaces). Here are few tips to SQL Server Optimizing the updates on large data volumes. [6.5, 7.0, 2000, 2005] Updated 7-25-2005 Thanks for that link. I know Oracle's not on your list, but I think that most modern databases will behave that way. Does healing an unconscious, dying player character restore only up to 1 hp unless they have been stabilised? To illustrate our case, let’s set up some very simplistic source and target tables, and populate them with some data that we can demonstrate with. for compiling when you save any Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Database Documenter to determine site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. Here you go… use the data type that is in your database. I observed that auto update stats use a very low sampling rate (< 1%) with very large tables (> 1 billion rows). The planner is currently doing the right thing. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. The following factors are When we MERGE into #Target, our matching criteria will be the ID field, so the normal case is to UPDATE like IDs and INSERT any new ones like this: This produces quite predictable results that look like this: Let’s change the values in our #Source table, and then use MERGE to only do an UPDATE. Its ridiculous size is the reason I'm looking into this. Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things, parallelism repartitions, ordering, and hash matches. For example, with a SELECT statement, SQL Server reads data from the disk and returns the data. Can I assign any static IP address to a device on my network? Overcome MERGE JOIN(INDEX SCAN) with explicit single KEY value on a FOREIGN KEY, SQL Server equivalent of Oracle USING INDEX clause, Same query plan, different data set, very different query duration SQL Server 2012. Any guidance is welcome. Perhaps, other databases have the same capabilities, however, I used such variables only in MS SQL Server. I am a beginner to commuting by bike and I find it very tiring. What is the difference between Left, Right, Outer and Inner Joins? Sometimes we can quickly cut that time by identifying common design patterns that are indicative of poorly performing TSQL. When the sample rate is very low, the estimated cardinality may not represent the cardinality of the entire table, and query plans become inefficient. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. By using joins, you can retrieve data from two or more tables based on logical relationships between the tables. This may not be a problem for a small table but for a large and busy OLTP table with higher concurrency, this may lead to poor performance and degrade query response time. SQL Server Columnstore Performance Tuning Article History SQL Server Columnstore Performance Tuning ... Avoid joining pairs of large tables. Last Modified: 2010-08-05 . If you have an index on a column that has: A B C F and you decide to add "D", this record will have to be inserted between "C" and "F". The simplest way to explain join elimination is through a series of demos. Performance of mysql equi-join observed in HDD and SSD. In this article, we are going to touch upon the topic of performance of table variables. One of the key performance issues when upgrading from SQL Server 2012 to higher versions is a new database setting: AUTO_UPDATE_STATISTICS. That seems a bit odd but without more context it is hard to answer the question on the design flat out. Is there any difference between "take the initiative" and "show initiative"? Done, added just above the start of the table definitions. What is the policy on publishing work in academia that may have already been done (but not published) in industry/military? The reason the process speeds up 60x when the index is dropped is because: When you have an index, SQL server has to arrange the records in the table in a particular order. Since you want everything from both tables, both tables need to be read and joined, the sequence does not have an impact. zero-point energy and the quantum number n of the quantum harmonic oscillator. If they time out during the compilation stage, you will get the best plan found so far. 4,527 Views. But if you intend to populate the TVF with thousands of rows and if this TVF is joined with other tables, inefficient plan can result from low cardinality estimate. As an example, if you change COUNT(value) to COUNT(DISTINCT value) without changing the index it should break the query again because it has to process value as a value, not as existence. rev 2021.1.8.38287, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Database Administrators Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us.